On March 1, 2022, Official Languages Minister Ginette Petitpas Taylor tabled Bill C-13, An Act to amend the Official Languages Act, to enact the Use of French in Federally Regulated Private Businesses Act and to make related amendments to other Acts, in the House of Commons.
Like its predecessor Bill C-32, an Act for the Substantive Equality of French and English and the Strengthening of the Official Languages Act, that died on the order paper before the last election, the QCGN believes the new legislation contains some positive steps forward. However, we remain concerned about the new direction the Government of Canada, and the long-term effects this change will have on the application of the Official Languages Act, and the language rights of English-speaking Quebecers. We are particularly worried about the creation of new language of work and service rights for French in federally regulated businesses in Quebec.
“There is strong language in the Act that recognizes the importance of Canada’s English and French linguistic minority communities, and we fully support the Government of Canada’s obligations to support these communities in a way that recognizes each of their unique needs and challenges,” said former Senator and QCGN Board Member Joan Fraser.
“However, it is clear that C-13 contains fundamental flaws, particularly in the light of the Quebec government’s proposed amendments to the Charter of the French Language.”
View our testimony before the House of Commons Standing Committee on Official Languages (LANG)
QCGN President Marlene Jennings, Board Member Joan Fraser, and our legal counsel Marion Sandilands appeared before the House Standing Committee on Official Languages (LANG) on June 7. 2022, for its study on Bill 13, An Act to amend the Official Languages Act, to enact the Use of French in Federally Regulated Private Businesses Act. Testimony begins at 16:38.Me. Janice Naymark, who sat as a member of the Expert Panel on Language of Work and Service in Federally Regulated Private Businesses, also appears.
View our testimony before the Senate Standing Committee on Official Languages (OLLO)
QCGN Interim President Eva Ludvig and Board member and former Senator, Joan Fraser, and our legal counsel, Marion Sandilands, appeared before the Senate Standing Committee on Official Languages (OLLO) on June 13, 2022. For its pre-study of C-13, An Act to amend the Official Languages Act, to enact the Use of French in Federally Regulated Private Businesses Act and to make related amendments to other Acts. The focus of this meeting was the proposed Use of French in Federally Regulated Private Businesses Act. The QCGN’s presentation begins at 18:00 after testimony by Parliamentary Budget Officer Yves Giroux.
On February 19, 2021 then Official Languages Minister Mélanie Joly released her government’s plan to modernize Canada’s approach to official languages a reform paper entitled English and French: Towards a substantive equality of official languages in Canada. The Government’s proposal, and follow up legislation: Bill C-32 – An Act to amend the Official Languages Act and to make related and consequential amendments to other Acts, died on the Order Paper when a federal election was called in the fall of 2021.
Meant to achieve substantive equality of official languages in Canada, the proposal represented a fundamental shift in the federal commitment to official languages. It sought to recognize French as an official and minority language in Canada. It also sought to acknowledge the linguistic dynamics of individual provinces and pursued the notion that French is in need of special protection in Canada, and Quebec.
The QCGN is wary of current and past proposals to extend French-language requirements to federally regulated businesses in Quebec. We insist that the government ensure that English consumers and workers be able to communicate with these businesses in the official language of their choice. The federal government cannot ignore 1.1 million English-speaking Quebecers while extending new language rights and obligations to these enterprises.
The effects of the language used in Joly’s proposal if transferred to federal legislation on the future interpretation of language rights by the Courts is unknown. This ought to be of great concern, QCGN told the House of Commons’ Standing Committee on Official Languages examining the Government of Canada’s proposed reforms on February 25, 2021. We told the committee that this could prove to be the single most important issue arising from the Government of Canada’s proposals. This is new ground, and, at first blush, appeared to imperil the rights of English-speaking Quebecers down the road. View our appearance on ParlVu.
Canada’s Official Languages Act, which turned 50 in 2020, is the only language-rights legislation that protects the interests of English-speaking Quebecers as a community. It sets out quasi-Constitutional rights for English-speaking Quebecers, including the right to access federal services in English; representation of English speakers within the Canadian government; and the right to work in English in the federal public service.
The Act also supports the development of English and French linguistic minority communities and advances the equal status and use of English and French. Moreover, it provides the framework for much-needed financial support for our community’s institutions and networks in a variety of sectors including education, immigration, justice, and health.
From the perspective of English-speaking Quebec, a modernized Act must possess the following key features:
As in the current Act, the central guiding principle must be the equality of status of English and French. There can be no separate status or approach for each language. Further, the Act must categorically guarantee this equality of status in all institutions which are subject to it across Canada.
Two additional key features must also animate the Act:
- Substantive Equality: In its implementation, the Act must enable adaptation to the specific contexts and needs of the different official language minority communities.
- Capacity, Consultation, and Representation: The Act should provide for robust, mandatory, and properly resourced consultation at all levels, including a formal mechanism for consultation at the national level.
“The Official Languages Act is a significant legislative response to the obligation imposed by the Constitution of Canada in respect of bilingualism in Canada. The preamble to the Act refers expressly to the duties set out in the Constitution. It cites the equality of status of English and French as to their use in the institutions of the Parliament and government of Canada and the guarantee of full and equal access in both languages to Parliament and to the laws of Canada and the courts. In addition, the preamble states that the Constitution provides for guarantees relating to the right of any member of the public to communicate with and receive services from any institution of the Parliament or government of Canada in English and French. The fact that the Official Languages Act is a legislative measure taken in order to fulfil the constitutional duty in respect of bilingualism is not in doubt.”
(Lavigne v. Canada (Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages),  2 SCR 773 at 21)
Further, a modernized Act should:
Guarantee equity in services, language of work, and participation in the public service
- Strive for coherence between Parts IV (services), V (language of work) and VI (participation);
- Reframe Part VI to ensure that English speakers are fairly represented in federal institutions in Quebec;
- Ensure that services in both languages are of substantively equal quality;
- Update and broaden the language of work obligations;
- Support the administration of justice in both official languages (including removal of the bilingualism exception for judges of the Supreme Court of Canada);
- Consider extending the application of Parts IV, V, and VI of the Act to all federally regulated private enterprises.
Enhance the vitality of minority language communities
- Include clear definitions of “positive measure”, “enhancing the vitality of”, and “assisting in the development of” official language minority communities;
- Provide clearer lines of accountability for the obligations set out in Part VII;
- Require regulations to implement Part VII;
- Place strict transparency mechanisms in the Act to account for official languages investments;
- Create official languages obligations attached to all activities funded by federal resources;
- Require that all federal-provincial/territorial agreements be made in both official languages and be equally authoritative.
Provide for effective implementation
- Central accountability for application of the entire Act;
- Mandatory and robust consultation with official language minority communities, including a clear duty to consult, a definition of consultation, a duty to provide resources and build capacity to consult, a formal National Advisory Council, and a declaration that membership of parliamentary official languages committees should reflect the composition of official language minority communities;
- Enhanced and focused role of the Commissioner of Official Languages;
- Administrative tribunal with the power to sanction;
- Regular periodic review of the Actand Regulations.
“The promotion and protection of French should be done in “….a spirit of fairness and open-mindedness, respectful of the institutions of the English-speaking community of Québec, and respectful of the ethnic minorities, whose valuable contribution to the development of Québec it readily acknowledges.”
Charte de la langue française
QCGN Urges Quebec Government to Backtrack on Bill 96
Appearing before the National Assembly Committee on Culture and Education on Sept. 28, 2021, the Quebec Community Groups Network articulated its views and deep concerns about Bill 96, An Act respecting French, the official and common language of Québec.
Bill 96 proposed nothing short of the greatest overhaul to Quebec’s legal order since the Quiet Revolution. It is a constitutional project. It disrupts two decades of social peace around language in Quebec. It fundamentally changes the structure of the Quebec state and legal order. It upends 40 years of human rights protection in Quebec. It affects many areas of life for all Quebecers. Its policy basis is questionable. A change of this magnitude requires serious discussions and debate within Quebec society. It ought not to have been pushed through the legislature during a pandemic when public attention is rightly focused on health and the economy.
Because invitations to this Committee’s proceedings were so limited, the QCGN carried out public consultations on Bill 96. The 26 briefs submitted through those consultations were appended to QCGN’s brief to the National Assembly and are linked found below.
In its brief, the QCGN articulated three sets of concerns: First, Bill 96 would fundamentally alter the Quebec state, which is of concern to all Quebecers. Second, Bill 96 would make it harder to do business in Quebec, which is also of concern to all Quebecers. Third, Bill 96 would have adverse impacts on the 1.1 million Quebecers who belong to the English-speaking minority.
The QCGN supports the policy goal of promoting the French language in Quebec. However, the QCGN is convinced there are more effective and inclusive ways to achieve this goal to the benefit of all Quebecers.
View our testimony before the Committee on Culture and Education
On September 28, 2021, Marlene Jennings, President of the Quebec Community Groups Network, former Minister and MNA Clifford Lincoln, human rights lawyer Pearl Eliadis, and QCGN’s legal counsel Marion Sandilands, testified before the National Assembly’s Committee on Culture and Education Special Consultations and Public Hearings on Bill 96.
Because invitations to the National Assembly’s parliamentary hearings were so limited, the QCGN carried out a parallel community consultation on Bill 96. The QCGN’s hearings were a resounding success with more than three dozen groups and individuals presenting their concerns and recommendations about the legislation. View their testimony on QCGN’s YouTube channel and click on the names of groups and individuals below to read their submissions.
Click to Consult Briefs Submitted to QCGN Consultation
- Michael Bergman
- English Speaking Catholic Council
- Quebec Federation of Home School Association
- English Parents’ Committee Association
- Natasha Luttrell
- Quebec Writers Federation, English Language Arts Network, and Quebec Drama Federation
- Native Women’s Shelter
- Marc Robic
- Pearl Eliadis
- Regional Association West Quebecers
- Julius Grey (In French)
- Filipino Heritage of Montreal
- Quebec Association of Independant Schools
Click to Consult Briefs Submitted to QCGN Consultation
- Canadian Council of Muslim Women
- Seniors Action Quebec
- YES Employment + Entrepreneurship
- World Sikh Organization
- Community Economic Development and Employability Corporation
- Lord Reading Law Society
- QCGN Health and Social Services Committee
- Montreal Council of Women
- Coalition Inclusion Quebec
- Hellenic Congress
- Provincial Council of Women Quebec
- Greater Quebec Movement
- Royal Orr
The Charter of the French Language was enacted by the Parti Québécois government in 1977 to promote the primacy of the French language. Provisions of the Charter, commonly known as Bill 101, regulate government, commerce, business, education, and the courts. Access to English-language schools is restricted to children with a parent who attended elementary school in English. The Charter also requires the exclusive use of French on outdoor signs and in advertising. Businesses with 100 employees or more require a francization program.
Earlier, in 1974, the Liberal government legislated Bill 22, the Official Language Act. It proclaimed French as Quebec’s official language in every sector of activity of the province. The right to go to primary and secondary school in English was restricted to students able to prove, through written exams, that they had a strong level of English.
The Charter was challenged before the courts shortly after its adoption. Several amendments followed. Despite these changes, thousands of English-speaking Quebecers no longer felt welcome and left the province. The percentage of the Quebec population with whose first official language spoken was English plummeted – from 16.5 per cent in 1971 to 13.4 per cent in 2011.
Today, Quebec’s English-speaking community widely acknowledges the need to protect French. However, the QCGN strongly believes that such protection can be achieved while respecting the institutions of the English-speaking community, which serve all Quebecers in French and English.
This approach is exemplified in the Charter of the French Language, in the way it allows the use of languages other than French in a number of circumstances, including for reasons of health and public safety. The Charter also permits designated municipalities, school boards, and health and social service institutions to provide services in English and other languages. (See list of recognized organizations – In French only).
Overzealous application of Charter is at the root of our concerns, past, present, and future. Given its central place in Quebec life, the Charter needs to be updated from time to time. English-speaking Quebec welcomes the opportunity to add its constructive voice to the coming review.
From the perspective of English-speaking Quebec, a revised Charter of the French language must possess the following key features:
- allow English mother tongue Canadian citizens to send their children to English schools.
- enact a universal right for Quebec residents to receive French language instruction free of charge.
Quebec’s economic future relies on attracting and retaining newcomers, and integrating these people into a society whose public language is French. English-speaking Quebecers and multi-lingual newcomers are not ‘enemies’. We are fellow citizens and allies. This is the spirit in which reforms to the Charter of the French Language should be approached.
The QCGN notes that English-speaking Quebecers invented French immersion teaching and spread this innovation to the rest of Canada. English-speaking Quebecers are Canada’s most bilingual English-speaking cohort. Young English-speaking Quebecers demand access to better French language training that will prepare them for Quebec’s French-speaking workplace. Young Francophones are seeking opportunities to learn and work in English, so they can actively participate in the global economy for the benefit of all Quebecers.
The process chosen to amend the Charter of the French Language will prove critical. Changes to this legal cornerstone of modern Quebec must be carried out only after extensive, open, and meaningful consultation with all Quebecers. We call on the Minister Responsible for the French Language to ensure a transparent and inclusive approach.
- COMMENTARY BY QCGN PRESIDENT MARLENE JENNINGS
- QCGN STATEMENT REGARDING THE FRENCH LANGUAGE
- COMMENTARY BY SEN. ANDRÉ PRATTE
- COMMENTARY BY SEN. SERGE JOYAL
- COMMENTARY BY POLITICAL SCIENTIST STÉPHANIE CHOUINARD
- LANGUAGE OF WORK IN FEDERALLY REGULATED PRIVATE BUSINESSES IN QUEBEC NOT SUBJECT TO THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT
- OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT OF CANADA
- SENATE STANDING COMMITTEE ON OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ARCHIVES ON REPORTS
- HOUSE STANDING COMMITTEE ON OFFICIAL LANGUAGES HISTORY OF TESTIMONIES AND BRIEFS ON MODERNIZATION
- COMMISSIONER OF OFFICIAL LANGUAGES BRIEF ON MODERNIZATION OF OFFICIAL LANGUAGES
- FÉDÉRATION DES COMMUNAUTÉS FRANCOPHONES ET ACADIENNE DE LA CANADA’S MODERNIZATION OF OFFICIAL LANGUAGES PAGE
- ANNOTATED LANGUAGE LAWS OF CANADA — CONSTITUTIONAL, FEDERAL, PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL LAWS
- CHARTER OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE (BILL 101)
- RAPPORT SUR L’ÉVOLUTION DE LA SITUATION LINGUISTIQUE AU QUÉBEC (IN FRENCH ONLY)
To provide a deeper look at the Official Languages Act, the QCGN worked with the Association for Canadian Studies (ACS) to prepare a special issue of Canadian Identities entitled Shifting Landscapes: English-speaking Quebec and the Official Languages Act. We also prepared an infographic on Quebec’s English-speaking Communities and Official Languages. Furthermore we recommend ACS’s Winter 2019 issue of Canadian Issues dedicated to the Official Languages Act entitled Linguistic Duality De jure and de facto. Click on the thumbnails below to download copies of these documents. You can also obtain hard copies of them by contacting Rita Legault, our Director of Communications and Public Relations, at email@example.com.